Natural aging and photo-aging are not mutually exclusive and sometimes overlap. Clinical observations show that naturally aged skin is thin, dry, and has many fine wrinkles, while photo-aged skin usually has a leathery, sagging appearance with reduced elasticity, uneven pigmentation, coarse and deep wrinkles, and telangiectasias (appearance of blood vessels).
Changes due to natural aging or photo-aging occur in both the epidermal and dermal compartments. A decrease in the extracellular matrix of the dermis, such as collagen and elastin, is constantly observed in both natural aging and photo-aging.
Reactive oxygen species and free radicals generated on the antioxidant capacity of cells due to external factors, such as UV radiation and pollution, or internal metabolic dysfunction can cause oxidative damage to cells. Free radicals also lead to cell senescence and degradation of the extracellular matrix involved in premature skin aging. In fact, free radicals play a pathological role in the development of various skin diseases and cancer. Therefore, ingredients that remove free radicals or improve the antioxidant capacity of cells are expected to help maintaining skin homeostasis.
Nicotinamide ( niacinamide ) is the amide form of water-soluble vitamin B3. In the dermatological field, many studies have been reported on nicotinamide and its analogues regarding the prevention and treatment of cancer, blisters, acne vulgaris, psoriasis, wound healing and pigmentation disorders.
Nicotinamide has also been used for decades in the cosmetic field to prevent skin aging and brighten skin tone, and is mainly formulated at a concentration of 4 to 5%. When cosmetics containing nicotinamide are used in a well-planned regimen, you can expect a skin aging relief effect comparable to that of retinol-based products. And on hyperpigmented skin you can expect lightening effects almost comparable to those of hydroquinone (at the same 4% concentration).
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“Basi meccanicistiche ed evidenze cliniche per le applicazioni della nicotinamide ( niacinamide ) per controllare l’invecchiamento e la pigmentazione della pelle” Dip. Medicina Molecolare BK21 Plus KNU, Biomedical Convergence Program, Istituto di Ricerca su Cellule e Matrici, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944 Corea